year 2, Issue 2 (Fall & Winter 2017)                   CIAUJ 2017, 2(2): 1-13 | Back to browse issues page

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Heydari Delgarm M, Bemanian M R, Ansari M. The Comparison of Two Holistic Viewpoints in Architecture, before and after the Modern Era: Humoral approach and Salingaros theory. CIAUJ. 2017; 2 (2) :1-13
1- Tarbiat Modares University
2- Tarbiat Modares University ,
Abstract:   (3645 Views)

Modern holism is an approach which tries to cover weaknesses of atomism in mechanically describing the world. Modern and pre-modern holisms are generally conceived to be similar. This paper mainly seeks to find if there is any similarity between architecture based on modern and pre-modern holism and, if yes, to what extent should we seek their similarities and differences. The hypothesis is that even though there are similarities between modern and pre-modern holisms, they are not totally homogenous, and as a result, the architecture arising from these theoretical frameworks is different.

Studying the two theoretical frameworks is based on themes and parameters extracted by using thematic analysis, logical thinking, and Delphi methods. The comparison has been carried out in three layers of metaphysical bases, relation of theory and praxis and practice itself. These three layers are theoretical, practical, and intermediate ones which are investigated in a modern and pre-modern case of holistic frameworks. In the practical layer Humoral theory and its results in architecture (as a sample of pre-modern holism) is compared to Salingaros’ theory (along with its roots in modern physics) considering internal relation of architectural components, relation of architecture to environment, and to human being. The results show that modern holism is a new synthesis of modern atomism rather than being homogenous to pre-modern holism. Humoral theory as an example of pre-modern holism suggests similar solutions for cases not similar in modern viewpoints. It could be suggested that humoral theory has properties of to-be-discovered “theory of everything” in modern physics.

Humoral theory, looks for equilibrium and converting human being into a universe, but modern physics, along with other modern disciplines, tries to understand the phenomena and provide predictions in order to gain control over them. Humoral theory, furthermore, generates a vocabulary understood by public and scientists of diverse disciplines, but modern physics is based on mathematics and usually far away from everyday experiences. In modern framework of sciences, disciplines are connected posteriori and by the means of inter-disciplines. General homogeneity of humoral theory along with the norm of equilibrium which is woven within it, makes it suitable to be used in architecture and thus making an architectural theory out of it which, more than positive propositions, needs normative ones. On the other hand, since in modern physics, there is a lack of normative propositions, Salingaros adds intermediate norms to use physics in an architectural theory. These intermediate propositions are not derived from modern physics, but Salingaros theory is largely affected by them to an extent which the relation of his theory with modern physics gets vague. Ultimately, the only similarity that Salingaros manages to keep between modern physics and his theory is the presence of timeless and placeless dictums. These guide Salingaros to denying the importance of culture and period on beauty. But in humoral theory, time and place themselves have humoral properties and architectural advises are recommended considering them and other parameters, including human being, environment, and material

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