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Technical and Vocational University, boys Faculty of Qom , msnarighomi@ut.ac.ir
Abstract:   (58 Views)
What is Islamic Architectural Design? It is a question which may be answered upon built patterns of past but what about future? That is what this arcticle is about. Here it is argued that Islamicness in architecture could be based on Islamic lifestyle that is in turn is based on Islamic moral and functional tradition. Here it is claimed that if right social and individual behaviors from original Islamic texts are systematically considered there would be a clear new approach for architecture to be called as Islamic. So first some potential of those Islamic contents are introduced that are usable to construct such a theory of making built environment, among them are: vast descriptions about some basic elements of the city (home, mosque, street andbazar), topological norms about closeness, territories etc, and the most important of all, behavioral patterms of human which are vastly articulated in Islamic texts. Besides there are some metric characteristics of space as well as configurational ones that are helpful foe theory making. Next step has been a survey of positivists’ social and behavioral theories of built environment to evaluate their compatibility for applying to makin Islami behavioral theory of built environment. For the purpose two critical examples of those theories are selected: “Space Syntax” of Bill Hillier and others as an objective socio-behavioral theoty and Irwing Altman’s theory of social behavior as subjective example. The coparitive study among them with Islamic texts here is resulted in some critical inconsistency in their presuppositions about human-environment relations with those of Islam. While “Space Syntax” is sharply founded on configurational determinism of social relations Islam sees it an effective force but its social consequences are not considered obligatory. Simultaneously some concepts in Altman” socio-environmental theory such as privacy, intimacy, territoriality and crowding have different features in Islamic behavior and some of them may not be taken as important factors for this system of environmental behavior. It is concluded that such theories of human-environment relation are based on a vertical process of theory making which aims to provide a naturalistic vision of human world made up of analyzing of behavioral phenomenon. It is while Islamic interpretation of environment-behavior is systematically organized to analyze phenomenon ont the basis of a supreme view of human world. So any theoretical effort to interpretation of EB phenomenon will be a “lateral debate” which means an internal organization of the phenomenon under light of Islamic world view not making an Islamic world view. These arguments are abstracted via conceptual models.
Then an independent approach towards theory making in this field upon Islamic behavioral content is introduced based on “lateral debate”.At first, two basic kind of EB content in Islamic text are considered: religious ethical duties for special places and environmental situations and spatiality of behavioral patterns of orthodox Islam. Via some critical examples it is shown that such contents have strong potential to be used for a systematic interpretation of EB. To realize this interpretation, a key concept is developed in this article which can be called as “Duty Situation”. It is considered as important as its counterpart in current EB studies i.e. “Behavioral Setting” and has some common features with itas spatiality and a given set of behavioral content. But its difference is layed in its two characteristics stems from its foundation upon Islamic duty-oriented ethics: the first one is that its behavioral content is a normative one that referes to what Islam wnts from the situation so existing behavioral patterns of people in this respect only makes a ground for those essential behavior that should be evaluated on the base of its consistendy with it. The second point is independency of the two: spatial situation and behavioral content in terms of cause-effect relationship; this recent matter is resulted from idealistic view of Islam toards the social environment that its  natural or existing circumstances are not idealized but considered as a ground that should be leaded towards ideals. Through establishment of concept of “Duty Situation”, author’s final proposed model of Islamic EB relationship emerges.
Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2021/04/24 | Accepted: 2021/08/24

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