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year 5, Issue 2 (Semi-Annual 2020)                   CIAUJ 2020, 5(2): 17-36 | Back to browse issues page

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Pirbabaei M T, Iranshahi R. Analysis of the Role of Endowment Tradition in the Development of Urban Centers Based on the Constitution Theory. CIAUJ. 2020; 5 (2) :17-36
URL: http://ciauj-tabriziau.ir/article-1-245-en.html
1- Tabriz Islamic Art University , pirbabaei@tabriziau.ac.ir
2- Tabriz Islamic Art University
Abstract:   (4214 Views)
In studying the evolution of urban spaces in the Islamic world, especially in Middle Eastern societies, we see different spatial patterns compared to European cities.  Most of the political systems governing these societies lacked mechanisms for managing, planning and developing urban spaces. The culture of waqf in most of these cities has played a role as this mechanism and has created urban systems based on religious teachings. This institution has played an important role in the construction of Islamic cities and the reproduction of urban spaces, and its permanence throughout history has led to the continuity of these spaces. The tradition of waqf, which is reproduced according to the principles and norms of Islam, includes elements such as waqf, waqf letter, competitions, trustees, religious scholars and mujtahids who have the task of writing and certifying its authenticity. In the absence of formal mechanisms for the management, planning and spatial development of cities in the political systems of the Middle East and Iran, Waqf institution has civil-social functions and has played an important role in the development, meaning and continuity of Islamic culture in these cities. The urban complexes of Naghsh Jahan in Isfahan, Ganjali Khan in Kerman and Sheikh Safi al-Din in Ardabili in the Safavid period are among those that were formed with the culture of waqf and now constitute the main structure of those cities. The purpose of studying and evaluating this issue is to reach the principles and framework that, with the origin of thought and thinking of a comprehensive worldview, indicates a model that is referred to urban designers and planners in creating and sustaining the structural, civic and spiritual life of the city. In the meantime, what can be considered as an issue is the existence of Waqf and the undeniable impact it has had on the creation of spatial and structural organization and the continuation of urban civic life, and the need to organize it as a purposeful structural system in the structure of the Islamic city. In the process of formation and development of cities in the Islamic world, we simultaneously witness the development and adaptation of the culture of Waqf to local requirements and local laws, along with attention to the regional and indigenous needs of communities living in newly established or occupied cities. Meanwhile, the attention of governments and government agents to the issue of Waqf and its use as a tool for the development and continuity of Islamic concepts and values, has had a significant impact on the importance of this Islamic institution in the process of planning and spatial development of the Islamic cities. In the present article, the role of Waqf culture in the development of these urban complexes has been explained based on Giddens' constitution theory and interpretive-historical method. Findings show that Waqf institution is the deepest layer of actions and properties that make up and produce the above urban systems. Regarding their historical continuity, these religious, social and political conditions and relations have prevailed causing the reproduction of urban spaces in different periods by continuing or changing the rules and sources of Waqf. Meanwhile, the ulema and mujtahids, as the confirmers and legitimists of Waqf, have indirectly continued the Islamic culture in the city by monitoring, controlling and rethinking. In the structure of the social system, achieving real and comprehensive happiness is not possible except in the light of social cooperation. As one of the examples of social participation, the endowment institution plays an important and influential role in the structural quality and planning of society.
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Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2020/07/25 | Accepted: 2020/10/10 | ePublished: 2021/02/16

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